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Women can become invisible subjects in a context where the city is a political territory for making citizenship. That is why women often have to build their citizenship by taking risks. Urban planning often does not include women in the design. Street lights, infrastructures are missing. From July 1, to May 31, , women had been killed. The violence that takes place in cities goes beyond robbery and assault, the gang that controls the corner, the abuses, the drug ring that terrorises the neighbourhood or the illegitimate use of force by diverse actors.
Violence is also hunger, a lack of basic services, and an unjust legal system. And it is discrimination based on ethnicity, birthplace, sexual orientation and age. Women are the omitted subjects in much urban design and planning. As Saskia Sassen expressed in a article :. Much research and theory is now focusing on gender and cities, bringing light to these omissions and to the subordinate situations of women in cities. Gender is here used as an analytical category useful for highlighting the asymmetries between men and women.
Even as change is happening, many women experience the city differently than men. Women combine productive work with family duties, fragmenting the use of time and space. Urban design and planning, particularly since Modernism , has answered to a universal citizen: white young productive men. Millions of women and girls experience violence as a kind of pandemic, natural, invisible and justified. Only recently has it been seen as resulting from patriarchal conditions where ideology and culture hide symbolic dominance and economic exploitation.
This recognition has produced diverse initiatives. It includes strengthening the focus on women in special courts of justice, police stations, police training, improvement in public transport, investment in street lights, training on gender and violence against women in schools, and more.
If our understanding of cities and potential policy reforms are to enhance social progress, we must revisit urban planning from a gender-based perspective.